Baku day trips

Mystic Azerbaijan

During my undergrad studies I became fascinated with religious mysticism. Mysticism is religious practice off the beaten path; basically the idea that one is not dependent on a religious hierarchy/structure to have a relationship with the divine — whatever that means to the individual. It is universal; movements all over the world have shaken organized religions to their cores and I appreciate anything that challenges the status quo when it becomes stagnant.

And don’t think that mysticism, with its desert-living hermits and vision-having nuns, is a thing of the past. It’s a thriving element of spiritual life the world-over, including Azerbaijan, a country seeking a coherent religious identity as it navigates independence. The two places described below are full of mystic qualities, and are worth visiting as day trips if you get the chance.

Sofi Hamid Cemetery

Legend has it that in the 14th century, an Arabian merchant named Sofi Hamid was traveling southward through the arid steppes of modern-day Azerbaijan when he suddenly realized that he was dying. He asked his entourage to bury him wherever his camel rested; and today we have Sofi Hamid Cemetery.

Out in the middle of nowhere

Out in the middle of nowhere

Once we arrived (we hired a driver for the day, that was taken care of by one of my lovely colleagues), we went to the courtyard that housed Sofi Hamid’s body.

Sofi Hamid 2

Sofi Hamid 3

Right outside is a white camel. Women who want to have a baby crawl under the camel three times, but you can wish for other things too. I witnessed a group of women perform this ritual, and it’s fascinating.

Sofi Hamid Camel

Next to the camel is a bunch of small trees. Women tie tiny cradles made from cloth to the trees, again asking for God’s blessing to raise families. It immediately reminded me of the house of Mary in Ephesus (Turkey), the only other place I had seen people tie cloth as a symbol of their desires.

Tiny cradle

Tiny cradle

Hundreds of prayers

Hundreds of prayers

Now for the actual cemetery. A striking feature we noticed was that the monuments were all facing the same way:

Sofi Hamid 5

All faced towards Mecca…

Sofi Hamid 6

Differences abound in this cemetery compared to traditional Muslim cemeteries, and my local friends were great at pointing those out. For example, the plots you see above act as monuments and draw a lot of attention to that grave site. Traditionally, burial plots are meant to look this this:

A pile of stones, which in English we'd call "cairn" (I had to look that up). The reddish-pink ribbon indicates that the person died very young, i.e. before the age one typically marries

A pile of stones, which in English we’d call “cairn” (I had to look that up). The reddish-pink ribbon indicates that the person died very young, i.e. before the age one typically marries

Simple and basic. But those were in the minority…Sofi Hamid is famous for combining pre-Islamic traditions and themes to Islamic burial practices, which is better described in this article if you’re a nerd like me and want to know more details.


Imagine that you’re walking through this cool cemetery, you turn your head to the right and see…

BAM!! Crazy blue!!

BAM!! Crazy blue!!

Keep walking, climb over some random shrubs and suddenly…

An awesome shade of green

An awesome shade of green

And there’s more…

Like this...

Like this…

And that one

And that one

But there’s something for every taste, even more subtle ones…

Robin's egg blue, for example

Robin’s egg blue, for example

Gentle pastels...

Gentle pastels…

A breezy beach scene...

A breezy beach scene…


A majority of the grave sites had several images and motifs that indicated what that person accomplished in their life, such as a career.

This person was probably a driver

This person was probably a driver

Another driver? Construction worker?

Another driver? Construction worker?

This person was perhaps a tailor or cobbler

This person was perhaps a tailor or cobbler

My personal favorite was the samovar…I don’t know if that means they dealt with tea or made samovars; but it’s amazing.

Sofi Hamid 21

I want one on my grave stone when I pass

Sofi Hamid 20Then there are other motifs: snakes, deer, birds, fruit, etc etc…

Sofi Hamid 23

Sofi Hamid 24

Sofi Hamid 25

This looks like the story of Sofi Hamid...

This looks like the story of Sofi Hamid…

Sofi Hamid 28

Of course, I was fascinated by the combination of Arabic and Cyrillic scripts. Seriously, where else in the world would you see this?

Sofi Hamid 29

Sofi Hamid 30

Sofi Hamid 31And don’t worry, I didn’t just obsess over the graves, I enjoyed the company of my friends too:

Friends 1

Friends 2

Friends 3

 Beş Barmaq (Five Fingers Rock Formation)

On a separate day, the other ETAs and I connected with one of the Fulbright Scholars who set up a trip to Beş Barmaq. Beş Barmaq is a pilgrimage site mainly tailored towards those who practice Shiite Islam (i.e. Azerbaijan and Iran). I believe the rock formation, in pre-Islamic times, was a hub for ancestral/spiritual worship, and some of those traditions are still practiced today.

Besh Barmaq 1

A friend from home mentioned it looks like something from a Tolkien novel. I have to agree

Got a good work out too with these stairs

We met a woman on the stairs as she made her way down. She made sure we were covered correctly, and gave her scarf to Madeline without a second thought. I think we were each deeply touched by her willingness to help the obviously clueless tourists, and I’ll never forget her.

Bash Barmaq 3

Looking back

Looking back

Along the main path was a flatbed area where people stacked rocks. I’m sure there was some religious significance, but Dana mentioned that hikers often do this at the end of a long hike. So I’m going with that.

Besh Barmaq 5

Besh Barmaq 6

Then we climbed through the rock formation to reach one of the top peaks. Ladders and rails made from ersatz materials, and steps worn from heavy use made for a somewhat precarious climb. Not to mention having to worry about other people, especially the elderly women who somehow braved the trail. There was also a young woman who climbed in her wedge heels. Devout women, with the skirts of their chadors billowing behind them, drifted around the formation. We passed a couple others on the stairs and throughout the formation with faces uplifted, palms extended toward heaven, a friend conveniently nearby snapping pictures on her phone.

Hiking Besh Barmaq 1

Starting the ascent

It was intimidating, to say the least

It was intimidating, to say the least

View of the Caspian

View of the Caspian

In some places, old women stationed themselves on the ground, granting blessings after pilgrims donated a manat.

Besh Barmaq Offering

Or candy too, apparently

And like at Sofi Hamid above, people tied pieces of fabric in certain areas as they made a wish or said a prayer. Luckily our contact mentioned this detail to me, so I cut some strips for us to tie.

Make a Wish 1

Make a Wish 2

Of course, happy to be there  :)

Of course, happy to be there 🙂

And there you have it, another side of religious culture in Azerbaijan. I talked about the different mosques around Baku in this post, so I think it’s appropriate to add something different. Honestly, visiting Sofi Hamid Cemetery and the Beş Barmaq pilgrimage site are some of my top moments during my Fulbright year; and I encourage future Fulbrighters or adventurers in Azerbaijan to check them out.

Until next time…  😉


Stuck in the Mud: Qobustan Day Trip

This past Sunday (December 7th) I was lucky to see Qobustan (also spelled Gobustan), a UNESCO World Heritage Site of ancient petroglyphs (“petroglyph” is the formal, academic word for “rock carving”). Qobustan is about an hour drive south-west of the city and, of course, we went on the one drizzly day of the week, but the outing was already postponed a few times so we pressed onward!

Okay, fast-fact history lesson of Qobustan: 1) The site is significant for multiple fields: geology, archaeology/anthropology, history, biology, nerds in general. So I was right at home. 2) The cliff side and accompanying boulders suggest that the area was at once completely submerged by the Caspian Sea, and had a much wetter environment than today. Hence the area was able to support diverse species of flora and fauna. 3) Humans are included in this, and the oldest petroglyphs are dated to the Mesolithic Age, roughly 10,000 BCE (or about 12,000 years ago). 4) The continuity of the human presence in this area is amazing – there is evidence from 10,000 BCE, through Roman occupation (Latin inscriptions), through the Middle Ages (Persian inscriptions). This website explains it well: Window To Baku – Gobustan. 5) Archaeologists and other researchers continually work on the site and new discoveries are made regularly. From the first excavations in the 1930s to today, over 6,000 petroglyphs have been documented.

Even though we only saw a handful of the 6,000 rock carvings, the trip was well worth it – the ticket fee was only 2 manat (or $2.50 to see the petroglyphs and tour the museum), and I think our guide was about 10 manat. As I mentioned, it was a rainy day; reminded me of the day trip I took to Hattuşa about two years ago.

Qobustan Museum

The museum


Looking out toward the base of the mountain

Qobustan Sign

Qobustan Rocks

We all squeezed into the car, including our English-speaking tour guide (who was excellent) and drove up the mountain.

Qobustan Fossils

Huge boulder with embedded fossilized sea shells. They are a little hard to see but it’s evidence that the area was submerged by the Caspian in pre-human history.

Qobustan Yallı Dancers

Dancing people! Today it’s called the “yallı” inscription. “Yallı” is a traditional dance of Azerbaijan.

Qobustan Figures

Inscription of human figures and a boat

Qobustan Figures 2

Human and animal figures. I literally could have stood here all day observing these engravings…

Qobustan Figures 3

Petroglyphs everywhere!!

Qobustan Goat

This is a goat; see the horns?

Qobustan Cave

Looking out from a cave

Qobustan Cow

In all seriousness, these people were way better artists than me. I could never draw a horse or goat…let alone on limestone.

Qobustan Figures 6


Qobustan Animals

The number of pictures should indicate how I adored this place. I should work here…

Qobustan Pig and Dog

A pig and a dog – indeed, ancient people here probably domesticated dogs. When was the last time YOU domesticated something?

Qobustan Rocks

If it wasn’t so wet and slippery, I might have attempted to climb on more rocks – how could those not be tempting??

Qobustan Friends

My cute companions

Musical Rocks 2

Playing with the musical rocks

I'm a regular musician!

I’m a regular musician!

It was pretty dismal, but beautiful in its own way

It was pretty dismal, but beautiful in its own way

Me in Gobustan

Wet and chilled but happy to be here

Qobustan Rocks 4

Qobustan Storage 1

This area had several holes carved into the rock, these were used for food storage and cooking

Qobustan Storage 2

That day they proved to collect water very well too…

We had access to only a few sites and got through them after an hour. Sooo, now what? “Would you like to go to the mud volcanoes?” Oh, right…I’ve heard about those. “They’re just a few kilometers away; for 20 manat we can take you in a jeep to see them – your car won’t be able to get through the mud.” Huh, good point. Well, since we’re here, let’s go for it!

So we drove back down the mountain and waited for the jeep in the museum parking lot. But nothing arrived. After a while we asked our tour guide and he pointed to this vehicle:

Qobustan "Jeep"

Sir, that is NOT a jeep. And I know you know what a jeep/SUV looks like because they are everywhere in the Baku area

How – how is this high enough to go through mud?! But the Qobustan site people insisted that this would get the job done. Alright, who am I but a crazy foreigner who knows nothing about the area? We’re here, let’s do it and see what happens. We piled in the car and a police officer drove about 20 minutes on smooth freeway before turning onto a mud road.

We were actually getting through the terrain pretty well; I was impressed. But we came to the first steep hill and that’s when we ran into trouble.

Qobustan Mud

Rather, that’s when we stalled into trouble

Our “jeep” wasn’t going anywhere but downhill.

Somehow it was decided that we would attempt to walk to the mud volcanoes. I looked at my boots – the only pair I brought with me from home – and sighed. Hayley, get over it, what if you never come here again? Fine, fine! I stepped out of the car and immediately sank into the goop:

Qobustan Mud 2


We sludged through the road and got to a flatland area that wasn’t as bad. But still gross. We followed our police guide, who I assumed knew a way to walk to the mud volcanoes…

Qobustan Mud 3

Trekking along

Stray Shoe

We saw some stray shoes during our walk. haha!

At one point he asked if we could climb up this hill. On a non-rainy day I think it totally would have been possible.

Climbing Qobustan

But not this day…not this day!

We pressed onward but he walked faster and we soon lost sight of him.

Abandoned 1


Abandoned in Qobustan

*poof* He’s gone

I started laughing maniacally – I mean, where else would I expect to get stuck in the mud? Where else would I expect to follow and be abandoned by a police officer through muddy flatlands that destroyed my only pair of boots? No where but Azerbaijan! (Although I could see Turkey pulling a similar trick.)

Abandoned Group

I made the group pose with me for an “we’re abandoned and our boots are completely ruined” selfie.

Going Crazy

Then I commenced laughing like a fool.

We ended our fiasco soon after this point and insisted that he take us back to Qobustan.

Qobustan "Jeep" 2

We squished ourselves back in the “jeep” – muddy boots and all!

I think we ended up paying 5 manat for his time (it seemed like he was roped into taking us to see the volcanoes), but no 20 manat was given for the tour. We concluded with a walk-through of the museum – which is beautiful (and relatively new, only 3 years old). Artefacts are very well displayed in both English and Azerbaijani (no Russian interestingly enough):

Qobustan Artefacts

So, it was an interesting day full of learning and a muddy blunder. And really, that part was a COMPLETE waste of our time…but it sure does make an interesting story (at least I hope!), and does add to my “tangled web of human experience”:

Qobustan Museum Quote

Plus, now I have an excuse to go boot shopping.

Until next time…  (:

 Extra websites…

UNESCO Page on Gobustan

Window to Baku – Gobustan